Genetic dental abnormalities are dysfunctions and diseases of oral tissues and dentition which are caused by defective genes. These conditions are unsightly and are related to inherited defect or spontaneous genetic mutations.
They manifest in the form of various oral problems. Whether hereditary reasons or mutations are responsible for genetic dental abnormalities, they may signify a complex health issue. Some genetic abnormalities are evident at birth, some are evident at a later stage. The knowledge of the genetic makeup of individuals help in determining the genetic susceptibility to genetic dental abnormalities,
Types And Symptoms
Malocclusion means bad or misaligned bite. An improperly aligned jaw or abnormal teeth structure due to missing, crowded or extra teeth. Malocclusion may lead to temporomandibular Joint disorder.
In this condition of genetic dental abnormality the teeth are smaller than normal, usually in the upper jaw.
Cleft Lip And Cleft Palate
Cleft lip and palate is characterized by a gap or split in the tissue of the lip or the roof of the mouth due to the incomplete joining of the lip. Cleft lip or hare lip usually occurs on one side mostly the left side. A cleft may go right into the nostril or end before it. They can be separate conditions but most of the times they occur together. There is an increased chance of occurrence with family history of cleft lip and palate.
Abnormalities Related To Missing Teeth Conditions
Teeth are missing, either primary or permanent or the development of the teeth is not as it should take place in an adult. Maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary and mandibular second premolars also frequently fail to appear.
In this genetic dental abnormality only some of the teeth are missing as they do not develop. Upto 6 teeth are missing excluding the molars. Hypodontia is often familial and can be linked to genetic disorders like ectodermal dysplasia or downs syndrome. It can also be seen in people with cleft lip and palate.
This genetic dental abnormality is characterized by the condition of over 6 missing teeth excluding the molars or wisdom teeth.
This abnormality results in the defective formation of tooth enamel, the hard protective surface covering the tooth. Amelogenesis Imperfecta either causes faulty enamel hardening or less than normal enamel production. Teeth become sensitive to temperature and pressure.
Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (Hereditary Opalescent Dentin)
Dentinogenesis involves defective formation of dentin, the material composing majority of tooth structure. The teeth are not strong enough and may succumb to breakage as the normal enamel tends to flake off.
Hence, teeth become sensitive. This conditions effects both primary and permanent teeth. Generally one copy of the altered gene in each cell is enough to cause this abnormality. Dentinogenesis effects 1 in 7000 people approximately.
This is a condition of having supernumerary teeth. That is the number of teeth is more than the regular number of teeth. Extra teeth which are abnormal in shape appear anywhere in the mouth. The common ones are mesiodens, conical small teeth etc.
Many supernumerary teeth never erupt, but delay the eruption of other teeth, cause dental or orthodontic problems. These teeth erupt commonly in the upper molar area of the mouth. The supernumerary teeth develop from a tooth bud arising from the dental lamina near the regular tooth bud or from splitting the regular tooth bud itself.