Genetic Dental Abnormalities are craniofacial abnormalities of teeth in the form of placement, structure, bone formation and tissues of the mouth and jaws.
A very important point to be noted is that they are caused due to defective genes which are genetically inherited from the parents’s chromosomes. The treatments depend on the type of disease. A lot of research is being carried out in the field of genetics to develop gene therapies to treat this condition.
Treatments For Genetic Dental Abnormalities
Orthodontic care which involves the use of braces straightens the teeth, corrects problems with bite, closes gaps , aligns lips and teeth properly, should be implemented. The problem of bad alignment usually gets corrected.
When this care is started at a young age it can rectify proper jaw growth and help permanent teeth to come properly. Surgical treatment helps to align the jaws to improve facial appearance.
For Cleft lip And Cleft palate
The treatment for this genetic dental abnormality involves the contribution of an oral surgeon, plastic surgeon, ENT specialist, prosthodontist, speech therapist, psychologist etc. as it is a complex process. Cleft lip and palate can be rectified with craniofacial surgery. While cleft lips deformity should be ideally rectified before 3 months of age, cleft palate surgery can be performed only after 2 ½ years of age.
For Anodontia, Hypodontia and other missing teeth abnormalities
When one or more permanent teeth fail to appear, dentists prefer to leave the primary tooth in place to prevent misaligned bite.
In case that cannot be done, the teeth is extracted and the gap is covered using braces or with a bridge. Generally an orthodontist undertakes such orthodontic correction treatments.
The teeth which are smaller than the normal size are made the size of the other normal teeth by applying crowns or veneers. Build-ups in composite can be done to correct maxillary laterals that are peg laterals. This corrected condition improves the patient’s bite and appearance of the teeth.
For Amelogenesis Imperfecta
To treat Amelogenesis Imperfecta the teeth are crowned and encased. Crown has a feel like natural teeth.
Usually stainless steel crowns are used in children, which are replaced by porcelain once they become adults.The crown restoration protects the teeth from further damage and improves the look.
For Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (Hereditary Opalescent Dentin)
The treatment used is bonding or putting lighter enamel on the flaky or weak enamel of the teeth. Repeated bonding treatments make the teeth appear white but the inner portion of the teeth remains the same. The aesthetic appearance of the enamel surface is improved.
Placement of crown in the posterior region helps as it decreases the wear of the teeth, maintaining proper vertical dimension between the jaws. Braces or a bridge that is a dental prosthesis covering an open space in the mouth is inappropriate for patients with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta as they can cause more damage.
For (Hereditary) Gingival Fibromatosis
Gingivectomy which means excision of the gingival (gums) is conducted to remove the extra tissue. Gingivectomy provides a favorable environment for healing.
For Hyperdontia or Supernumerary Teeth
The treatment depends on where the extra teeth are located and its effect on other teeth. When the eruption of teeth is delayed, there is a displacement or when braces are required than the supernumerary tooth is extracted. The extraction needs to be done by an oral surgeon when the child reaches an appropriate age. Depending on the situation alveolar bone grafting procedure may also be required to be conducted.